1918 Representation of the People Act Centennial

Representation of the People Act

















Image: Parliamentary Archives, HL/PO/PU/1/1918/7&8G5c64

The 1918 Representation of the People Act granted the vote to women over the age of 30 who met property requirements. It was only a partial franchise, with the full women’s franchise on equal terms to men still a decade away. Some 8.5 million or 40% of adult women were enfranchised. Considerable work remained to achieve the full female franchise, but it was a step in the right direction.

To celebrate the centennial of this important milestone in British democracy, Cycling to Suffrage will publish 18 profiles of pioneering cyclists on the Wheelwomen page.

Alice Hawkins is the most recent addition. Read the story of Leicester’s working class suffragette to find out more about the women who fought for the vote, but remained excluded by the 1918 franchise.


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Happy Holidays from Cycling to Suffrage!

Cycling to Suffrage is looking forward to a busy 2018!

It’s a bumper year for bicycling and suffrage, during which we’ll celebrate 200 years of the draisienne and 100 years since the limited franchise was achieved for women under the Representation of the People Act.

I’ll be delivering a number of Cycling to Suffrage talks in 2018 – watch the listings page for details.

Happy holidays!

Screen Shot 2017-12-23 at 20.08.19


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Read More Bicycle History on The Cycling UK Website

CTC Gazette Masthead, Stancer and RG Shaw

Are you interested in reading more about cycling history? Visit the history section of the Cycling UK website!

As Cycling UK’s historian, I have been researching the history of this influential organisation from it’s foundation as the Bicycle Touring Club in 1878, through its development as the Cyclists’ Touring Club, to its legacy today as one of the world’s largest and oldest cycling establishments.

New Cycling UK history articles will appear each month. Here are a few to get you started.

www.sheilahanlon.com_Old_CTC_signHappy Birthday Cycling UK: Celebrating 138 Years of Cycling History



Jeanie Welford

Jeanie Welford – The First Female Member of Cycling UK



CTC Monthly Gazette The History of Cycle Magazine



Laufmaschine 200 Years Since the Father of the Bicycle Baron Karl von Drais Invented the Running Machine


Be sure to check out the Cycling UK Timeline for highlights from club history as well.

Forthcoming articles will explore the CTC’s 1899 legal case against the Hautboy Inn for refusing service to Lady Harberton for wearing rational dress, CTC danger boards and accommodation schemes, and well known figures in Cycling UK history such as founder Stanley Cotterell.

Watch Cycling UK for regular history updates. If you’re not already a member, do consider joining this important cycling organisation – providing a voice for cyclists everywhere for over 100 years!


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Bicycle Fashion Files Part Three: The 1890s Craze

Hyde Park, Vanity Fair, 1896

Innovation and experimentation in Late Victorian women’s cycling costumes

An explosion of women’s cycling fashion accompanied the cycling craze on the 1890s. The third and final blog in the Bicycle Fashion Files series looks at practical, popular and inventive approaches to late Victorian cycling dress.

The New Safety Bicycle

Starley Drop FrameThe introduction of the Safety bicycle in the mid-1880s ushered in a new era of popular cycling for men and women. With its low stature, diamond frame, two roughly equal sized wheels, and chain wheel rear drive The Safety was similar to the bicycle of today. A ladies’ drop frame was devised by lowering or removing the crossbar.

By the mid-1890s, cycling was a leading leisure trend among fashionable women and they needed the outfits to match their outdoor pursuit. Creating a costume that was practical, becoming and met dress conventions was a big ask  – cycling manufacturers and clothing designers met this challenge through innovation and experimentation.

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Cycling to Suffrage on BBC Two “Inside The Factory: Bicycles”

You may have seen me pedaling across your television screen this summer!

Ruth Goodman on a TricycleAs part of BBC Two’s “Inside the Factory: Bicycles,” Ruth Goodman and I explore the significance of cycling to women’s emancipation. Using archival materials from The Woman’s Library, LSE we look at how the bicycle became part of the votes for women campaign.

The segment is in an episode of the series where Gregg Wallace and Cherry Gregg Wallace at Brompton FactoryHealey go inside the Brompton Factory to see how these innovative machines come together. Other segments highlight issues in modern cycling culture, safety, and racing. You’ll also see other cycling historians discussing the golden age of Highwheelers and folding bikes taken into battle during the two world wars.

“Inside the Factory: Bicycles” first aired 16 August 2016. You can catch in on BBC iPlayer for a limited time.

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Bicycle Fashion Files Part Two: Tricycles and Highwheelers, 1870-1880s

High wheel painting_1887

The Question of Women’s Dress During the Heyday of Tricycles and Highwheelers, 1870-1880s

The second instalment of the Bicycle Fashion Files examines cycling dress in the age of the tricycle and highwheeler, 1870s-80s. While only a few women took to the pastime in those era, most of whom were wealthy or aristocratic with a handful of circus performers thrown in, the need for adapted dress was recognised. The results ranged from modest riding habits to scandalous gymnastic costumes on stage.

For earlier women’s cycling fashions, see Part One, Early Inventions 1790-1860. Later fashions are covered in Part Three, The 1890s Craze.

Dress Constraints and Conventions in the Golden Age of the Highwheeler

Highwheel Uniform, US 1870sIn the 1870s, the machine of choice among fit, young, men of means was the Ordinary, also known as the highwheeler, or penny farthing. Enlarging the front wheel of a velocipede to increase speed resulted in the lofty machine. The masculine traditions, physical demands, danger, and dress associated with high wheeling made the pastime off-limits for most women.

The customary attire for male cyclists was a militarised jacket, tight knee-breeches, and a cap or pith helmets, as reflected in the portraits shown above left. Cycling associations were especially fond of military influenced uniforms.

The riding habit worn by the lady tricyclist leading the pack in Hy Sandham’s painting at the top of this post, for example, would have been incompatible with the highwheelers her companions ride. Conventional women’s dress, and behavioural expectations, were not compatible with highwheeling. Politely straddling the saddle and front wheel in a dress was impossible, not to mention mounting which involved launching yourself onto the machine and the likelihood of a skirt catching dangerously (perhaps fatally) in the front wheel.

Frances Bernadette JohnsonNonetheless, a handful of women defied convention and tried the machines in borrowed breeches and gymnastic costumes. Shown right is an 1870s self-portrait of American photographer Francis Bernadette Johnson in the get up of a male penny farthing enthusiasts. Little is known about Johnson or her clandestine cycling habits, but one can imagine that if she was travelling at speed down a road on a penny farthing dressed in this costume, she would have been indistinguishable from typical cyclist to most passers-by. Carleton Reid has identified several more similar cases of women riders disguised as men on his website details Roads Were Not Built For Cars.

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Bicycle Fashion Files Part One: Early Inventions 1790-1860s

Hobby Horse Fashions, 1819

Adapting Women’s Dress to Early Cycling Technology, 1790-1860s

Fashion is one of the most popular topics in women’s cycling history. The Bicycle Fashion Files look at women’s cycling fashion across three eras, Early Inventions 1790-1860s, Highwheeling and Tricycling 1870-1880s, and The Cycling Craze 1890s. Part One begins with the early phase of cycling technology from running machines to early velocipedes.

Celeriferes and Draisienes: The Birth of Cycling Style

CelerifereCycling fashion trends evolved alongside developments in bicycle technology. Even as far back as the introduction of the celerifere in 1790s France, a running machine consisting of a wooden horse on wheels, what to wear while riding was a concern. These machines were popular with wealthy young gentlemen for park riding. For celerifere enthusiasts, the costume of choice was was a masculine military inspired jacket paired with matching breeches and cap.

In 1817, German inventor Karl von Drais introduced an improved version of the running machine, which was popularly known as the draisiene or laufmaschine. This new machine was primarily marketed to men, but as you can see from the 1818 image of a demonstration in Luxembourg Gardens shown below, women were interested in this novelty and appeared in the crowd of spectators. Continue reading

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Bicycle Face: A guide to Victorian cycling diseases


The_Bicycle_Problem_www.sheilahanlon.com“Don’t cultivate a bicycle face.” — Don’ts for women on bicycles, New York World, 1895

Medical professionals kept a watchful eye on cycling when it rose in prominence as a fashionable form of leisure for men and women in the 1890s. The health benefits and risks of cycling were a source of great debate, with doctors emerging on both sides of the issue. Pro- and anti-cycling camps presented a list of real and imagined cycling diseases and cures that reveals as much about social and gender attitudes as it does about the science and pathology behind these theories, especially in regards to the impact of women’s cycling.

The Bicycle Problem_www.sheilahanlon.comBicycling ushered in a new era of physical leisure for women. Following on earlier leisure fads for light sport including lawn tennis and croquet, this late Victorian recreation continued trends in women’s outdoor recreation, but intensified the physicality and independence associated with it. Not surprisingly, women’s participation in cycling was a contentious issue. A number of doctors made women’s cycling health one of their specialisms and published widely on the subject, including Drs Arabella Kenealy, AT Schofield, Benjamin Ward Richardson, A Shadwell, EB Turner, Henry Garrigues and WH Fenton just to name a few. The 1890s were a time when women’s cycling was both censured and encouraged, with the body serving as the battlefield for a raging debate informed by gender conventions, social politics and anxiety about the changing role of women in a modernising world. Continue reading

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The Bicycle: Freedom Machine on The Forum, BBC World Service

The Bicycle: Freedom Machine

From Monday 12 October, you’ll be able to hear me and three other cycling experts discuss the importance of the bicycle in an episode of The Forum on BBC World Service.

Bridget Kendall leads the discussion with social enterprise entrepreneur Sameer Hajee a leader of pedal power projects in developing countries, cycling infrastructure planner Reetta Keisanen who has helped make Helsinki a cycling city, philosopher Professor Mike Austin a expert in thinking on and about the bicycle, and me historian Dr Sheila Hanlon on the significance of cycling for women in  Victorian and Edwardian eras.

“The Bicycle: Freedom Machine” explores the bicycle from all angles, from pedal power generated light and battery charging in African towns and as a form of transportation, to it’s more ephemeral connections to women’s emancipation and philosophy.

“The Bicycle: Freedom Machine airs on the BBC World Service at 01:06 GMT Monday 12 October, BBC World Service at 08:00 GMT Tuesday 13 October, and BBC World Service Australia 01:06 Wednesday 14 October.

BBC The Forum, Dr Sheila Hanlon

You can also listen to a short clip from the show about the faux-medical theories devised in the 1890s to discourage women from cycling. The clip which addresses a number of imagined cycle-diseases including the infamous bicycle face.

Tune in to the BBC World Service to  hear the full broadcast or listen to it as a podcast on The Forum site, www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p004kln9



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Ladies Cycling Clubs: The Politics of Victorian Women’s Bicycling Associations


The wheelmen’s club, outfitted in dapper uniforms and racing en masse down a country road, is one of the enduring images of late Victorian masculine associational culture. Cycling clubs may have started out as male reserves, especially during the highwheeler age, but this status was challenged as more and more women took up the pastime in the 1890s. Most cycling clubs eventually made room for female members, though not without resistance. During the cycling craze, women’s cycling clubs such as the Lady Cyclists Association (LCA) shown above, flourished in Britain and other nations where cycling was a popular leisure fad.

Men’s Clubs, Mixed Clubs and the Growing Presence of Wheelwomen

www.sheilahanlon.com_Welford_Cigarette_CardMany of the earliest ladies cycling clubs were formed as a reaction to gender inequality in clubs run by men, but they quickly took on a character of their own. Victorian ladies cycling clubs encouraged women to ride, allowed them to take full part in club life, expanded the geography of women’s cycling through group rides, and insulated women from the hostility they faced in public as lone riders. The all-female cycling clubs of the 1890s were more than mere leisure associations–they were a space where women worked collectively to protect their rights as cyclists and citizens.

Women had long been present on the margins of cycling club culture, even as far back as the 1870s when the machine of choice for men was the highwheeler. The tricycle, which was considered safe and appropriate for women riders, allowed lady tricyclists to join occasional rides as solo riders or on tandems and sociables. Most lady tricyclists were from aristocratic families who could afford the expensive machines, and they accompanied their husbands on club rides as guests.
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